Module 5 – Physiology: Keeping the body in mind

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Benedetti, F., Durando, J., Giudetti, L., Pampallona, A., & Vighetti, S. (2015). High-altitude headache: : the effects of real vs sham oxygen administration. PAIN, 156(11), 2326–2336.

Benedetti, F., Lanotte, M., Lopiano, L., & Colloca, L. (2007). When words are painful: Unraveling the mechanisms of the nocebo effect. Neuroscience, 147(2), 260–271.

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Cotman, C. W., & Berchtold, N. C. (2002). Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends in Neurosciences, 25(6), 295–301. Retrieved from

Crum, A. J., & Langer, E. J. (2007). Mind-set matters: Exercise and the placebo effect. Psychological Science, 18(2), 165–171.

De La Fuente-Fernández, R., Ruth, T. J., Sossi, V., Schulzer, M., Calne, D. B., & Stoessl, A. J. (2001). Expectation and Dopamine Release: Mechanism of the Placebo Effect in Parkinson’s Disease. Science, 293(5532), 1164.

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Department of Health. (2011b). Physical activity guidelines for OLDER ADULTS (65+ YEARS). Department of Health. Retrieved from

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Dishman, R. K., Berthoud, H.-R., Booth, F. W., Cotman, C. W., Edgerton, V. R., Fleshner, M. R., … Zigmond, M. J. (2006). Neurobiology of Exercise. Obesity, 14(3), 345–356.

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Erickson, K. I., Leckie, R. L., & Weinstein, A. M. (2014). Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume. Neurobiology of Aging, 35(SUPPL.2), S20–S28.

Erickson, K. I., Weinstein, A. M., & Lopez, O. L. (2012). Physical activity, brain plasticity, and Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of Medical Research, 43(8), 615–621.

Gibala, M. J., & Little, J. P. (2010). Just HIT it! A time-efficient exercise strategy to improve muscle insulin sensitivity. The Journal of Physiology, 588(Pt 18), 3341–2.

Hamilton, J. (2013). Brains Sweep Themselves Clean Of Toxins During Sleep. Retrieved from toxins-during-sleep

Hidaka, H., Eida, T., Takizawa, T., Tokunaga, T., & Tashiro, Y. (1986). Effects of Fructooligosaccharides on Intestinal Flora and Human Health. Bifidobacteria and Microflora, 5(1), 37–50.

Hilimire, M. R., DeVylder, J. E., & Forestell, C. A. (2015). Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model. Psychiatry Research, 228(2), 203–208.

Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Neuroscience, 9(1.), 58–65.

Johnson, R. K., Appel, L. J., Brands, M., Howard, B. V., Lefevre, M., Lustig, R. H., … Wylie-Rosett, J. (2009). Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health a scientific statement from the american heart association. Circulation, 120(11), 1011–1020.

Keogh, J. W. L., Grigg, J., & Vertullo, C. J. (2017). Is Home-Based, High-Intensity Interval Training Cycling Feasible and Safe for Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis? Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 5(3), 232596711769433.

Killgore, W. D. S., Balkin, T. J., Yarnell, A. M., & Capaldi, V. F. (2017). Sleep deprivation impairs recognition of specific emotions. Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms, 3(December 2016), 10–16.

Leckie, R. L., Oberlin, L. E., Voss, M. W., Prakash, R. S., Szabo-Reed, A., Chaddock-Heyman, L., … Erickson, K. I. (2014). BDNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(December), 1–12.

Levine, J. A. (2004). Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): environment and biology. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 286(5), E675–E685.

Levine, J. A., Vander Weg, M. W., Hill, J. O., & Klesges, R. C. (2006). Non-exercise activity thermogenesis: The crouching tiger hidden dragon of societal weight gain. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 26(4), 729–736.

Lindsey, S. S., Kallmes, D. F., Opatowsky, M. J., Broyles, E. a, & Layton, K. F. (2013). Impact of sham-controlled vertebroplasty trials on referral patterns at two academic medical centers. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 26(2), 103–5. Retrieved from

Lunt, H., Draper, N., Marshall, H. C., Logan, F. J., Hamlin, M. J., Shearman, J. P., … Frampton, C. M. A. (2014). High intensity interval training in a real world setting: A randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake. PLoS ONE, 9(1), 1–11.

MacAuley, D., Bauman, A., & Frémont, P. (2015). Exercise: not a miracle cure, just good medicine. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 350(4), h1416.

Macedo, D. M., & Diez-Garcia, R. W. (2014). Sweet craving and ghrelin and leptin levels in women during stress. Appetite, 80(May), 264–270.

Mazza, S., Gerbier, E., Gustin, M.-P., Kasikci, Z., Koenig, O., Toppino, T. C., & Magnin, M. (2016). Relearn Faster and Retain Longer: Along With Practice, Sleep Makes Perfect. Psychological Science.

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NHS. (2015b). Fish and Shellfish. Retrieved from

NHS. (2015c). Rough guide – Fruit & vegetable portion sizes, 1–9. Retrieved from

NHS. (2017). 5 A Day Portion Sizes. Retrieved from

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Nithianantharajah, J., & Hannan, A. J. (2009). The neurobiology of brain and cognitive reserve: Mental and physical activity as modulators of brain disorders. Progress in Neurobiology, 89(4), 369–382.

Nybo, L., Sundstrup, E., Jakobsen, M. D., Mohr, M., Hornstrup, T., Simonsen, L., … Krustrup, P. (2010). High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(10), 1951–1958.

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Palmer, C. A., & Alfano, C. A. (2017). Sleep and emotion regulation: An organizing, integrative review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 31, 6–16.

Pase, M. P., Himali, J. J., Beiser, A. S., Aparicio, H. J., Satizabal, C. L., Vasan, R. S., … Jacques, P. F. (2017). Sugar- and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Risks of Incident Stroke and Dementia A Prospective Cohort Study.

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Richards, J. L., Yap, Y. A., McLeod, K. H., Mackay, C. R., & Mariño, E. (2016). Dietary metabolites and the gut microbiota: an alternative approach to control inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Clinical & Translational Immunology, 5(5), e82.

Roig, M., Nordbrandt, S., Geertsen, S. S., & Nielsen, J. B. (2013). The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory: A review with meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 1645–1666.

Round, J. L., & Mazmanian, S. K. (2009). The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease. Nature Reviews Immunology, 9(8), 600–600.

Sahar Avazpor, Jamal Fazel Kalkhoran, & Hojat Allah Amini. (2016). The Comparison of the Effects of Two Types of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on Body Mass and Physiological Indexes in Inactive Female Students. Journal of Sports Science, 4(4), 219–225.

Schmidt, K., Cowen, P. J., Harmer, C. J., Tzortzis, G., Errington, S., & Burnet, P. W. J. (2015). Prebiotic intake reduces the waking cortisol response and alters emotional bias in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 232(10), 1793–1801.

Simopoulos, A. P. (2006). Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 60(9), 502–507.

Stanley, J. C., Elsom, R. L., Calder, P. C., Griffin, B. A., Harris, W. S., Jebb, S. A., … Sanders, T. A. B. (2007). UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Report: the effects of the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on cardiovascular health. British Journal of Nutrition, 98(6), 1305–1310.

Staples, M. P., Kallmes, D. F., Comstock, B. a, Jarvik, J. G., Osborne, R. H., Heagerty, P. J., & Buchbinder, R. (2011). Effectiveness of vertebroplasty using individual patient data from two randomised placebo controlled trials: meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 343, d3952.

Stickgold, R. (2013). Parsing the role of sleep in memory processing. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 23(5), 847–853.

Stranges, S., Samaraweera, P. C., Taggart, F., Kandala, N.-B., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2014). Major health-related behaviours and mental well-being in the general population: the Health Survey for England. BMJ Open, 4(9), e005878.

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Urminsky, O., & Zauberman, G. (2018). The Health Consequences of Intertemporal Preferences. In D. de Ridde, M. Adriaanse, & K. Fujita (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Control in Health and Wellbeing (pp. 1–24). Routledge. Retrieved from

Vyas, U., & Ranganathan, N. (2012). Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: gut and beyond. Gastroenterology Research and Practice, 2012, 872716.

Wager, T. D., & Fields, H. L. (2013). Placebo Analgesia. In Textbook of Pain.

Wandel, S., Juni, P., Tendal, B., Nuesch, E., Villiger, P. M., Welton, N. J., … Trelle, S. (2010). Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 341, c4675.

Wu, G. D., Chen, J., Hoffmann, C., Bittinger, K., Chen, Y.-Y., Keilbaugh, S. A., … Lewis, J. D. (2011). Linking Long-Term Dietary Patterns with Gut Microbial Enterotypes. Science, 334(6052), 105–108.

Xie, L., Kang, H., Xu, Q., Chen, M. J., Liao, Y., Thiyagarajan, M., … Nedergaard, M. (2013). Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain. Science, 342(6156), 373–377.